Reliability of data
States the global importante
Scientific alidity of trends
WHO – Over the last 10 years about 75% of new human infections have been zoonotic origin. (4) Although research into human health safeguards remains separate from livestock and other animal DZ research, significant benefits are gained by both animal and human health sectors when there is an integrated and coordinated control of veterinary and zoonotic DZs. (10)
UN/FAO – Human and animal health problems are inextricably linked and are not confined to specific regions, international borders, or ethnic and political divides. Zoonotic DZ control and food safety programs must educate the individual and local health resources in methods and practices that can be implemented at low or no cost, with minimal equipment and materials, and envision specific to broad integration.
OIE [World Organization for Animal Health (Organization International de l’Elevage)] — Zoonotic DZ research aims to increase capabilities, unify efforts internationally and develop precautions at the animal-human interface. From international, national, and local levels, multi-lateral approaches are necessary, as well as improvements in global reporting systems; this includes local husbandry to scientific influences.
GLEWS (Global Early Warning System) — DZs emerge and spread beyond boundaries. Zoonotic DZ management requires an integrated, multi-sectoral app-roach. Efficiency of early warning and forecasting of zoonotic DZ is key to effective containment and control. intervention of epidemics early leads to better outcomes with reduced morbidity and economic impact. (7)
PAHO – Practically all potential bioterrorism agents are zoonoses; control is cost-effective at the veterinary level for defense. The opportunities for veterinary public health practices are vast, but the challenge is to apply an extensive collection of research, results and knowledge. A new breed of veterinarians is needed to provide a public health vision, and to lead at the forefront of policy setting, decision-making, allocation of resources, etc. Veterinarians who will articulate and enact a strategic direction, for other supporting skill sets to follow, are needed. (6)
NIH [National Institutes of Health (USA)] — Approximately 1,435 microbial species are known to be human pathogens. Of the 75% which are zoonotic, many agents can be weaponized to cause turmoil by simultaneously targeting the health of humans and animals, producing serious socioeconomic impact. (9) As seen in publicly accessible state surveillance plans and DZ reporting regulations, animal zoonotic surveillance activities are widely variable across the nation; jurisdictional and geographical differences in surveillance activities impede a unified approach to early detection systems in the United States and global infectious monitoring.
IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) – Zoonotic DZs that recently emerged from animals are responsible for 7% of the total DZ burden in least developed countries; zoonoses make up 75% of emerging infectious DZs. A new DZ emerges every four months; many are trivial, but HIV, SARS, and avian influenza illustrate the potential for great global impacts on the health of humans, livestock, and economies.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control) – The streamlining of DZ surveillance remains a major issue; there still exist many separate DZ reporting pathways. For this reason, the CDC formed the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) in 2010. The NCEZID was made into one center from “The National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases” and “The National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-borne and Enteric Diseases.” “Our work is guided by a ‘One Health’ holistic strategy recognizing the interconnectedness of microbes and the environment.”
USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) — Co-analysis of animal and human zoonotic DZ events complements existing human health surveillance plans, may facilitate an early response, and may prevent widespread illness in both populations. Of the 175 pathogens considered to be emerging infectious DZs that affect humans, 132 (75%) are zoonotic (65% are traditionally zoonotic while 75% infectious DZs are of zoonotic origin over the course of human history).
UN-IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development) – Leading researchers in commercial syndicates, academia, civil society organizations (CSOs) and those with governmental ties have been important contributors in their countries to the existing domestic rules and policies for organic and eco-friendly agriculture. Their diverse backgrounds and in-depth knowledge provided useful insights beyond their case study analyses.